非政府组织自然灾害协调模型:系统回顾非政府组织自然灾害协调模型:系统回顾外文翻译资料

 2022-08-05 02:08

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目录

外文原文 2

Abstract 2

Introduction 3

Discussion 4

Conclusions 8

中文译文 10

非政府组织自然灾害协调模型:系统回顾 10

摘要 10

介绍 10

讨论 11

结论 14

外文原文

Nongovernmental organizations coordination models in natural hazards: A systematic review

(节选)

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) play a significant role to provide humanitarian services in natural hazards. However, few studies have been conducted on the coordination models of NGOs. Using these models, NGOs are expected to act along with other agencies to provide unified and effective humanitarianrsquo;s services. The present study aimed to identify the published coordination models of NGOs.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic review was conducted from October to November 2017. Electronic source, including PubMed, Web of Science, ProQuest Research Library, and Scopus were examined. All English articles published in journals or presented at conferences were included in the study. Nonjournal and irrelevant articles were excluded from the study. Furthermore, papers which were not available as a full text and published in languages other than English were also excluded. Thematic analysis technique was used to analyze the articles.

RESULTS: From 871 documents which captured in initial search, only 7 studies identified as eligible articles for extract 8 coordination models of NGOs in disasters and emergencies including: Sphere project, Cluster approach, Code of conduct, Decentralized approach, National Disaster Response Framework, Conceptual integrated NGO collaboration framework for community postdisaster reconstruction, Model of temporal coordination of disaster response activities, and Collabit application.

CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review identified eight proposed coordination models that have been implemented internationally, nationally, and locally in natural hazards. However, these models are not enough, and there are some gaps between what is it and what should be. More effective and efficient models and strategies are needed to increase the effectiveness of coordination activities at all levels of community. These results should serve policy‑makers and administrators of NGOs delivering humanitarian services during and postnatural hazards to choose from a number of options on how to coordinate their efforts.

Keywords: Model, natural hazards, nongovernmental organizations coordination.

Introduction

With the increase in the number of people injured in disasters as a result of the increased incidence and consequences of disasters in recent years, nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) have had a remarkable cooperation with governmental organizations and agencies to provide humanitarian services in natural hazards. Currently, NGOs work independently or cooperate with other organizations and have a significant role in providing relief and reconstruction services.

For instance, more than 3000 NGOs were involved in the provision of aid to the victims of the 2010 Haiti earthquake. Moreover, right after the 2003 Bam earthquake, the International Committee of the Red Cross and other local and national NGOs assisted the affected population with different capacities, experiences, and attitudes.

Historically, the topic of humanitarian assistance coordination started from the 1960s. Large organizations such as the UN Red Cross and governmental and nongovernmental agencies attempt to propose mechanisms and frameworks for coordination. However, the explosion of NGO/International NGO organizations involved in disasters which has increased more than tenfold in the past 30 years, and a lack of responder standards made the need for a “universally” accepted model critical and facilitates NGOsrsquo; coordination. For instance, Bradt (2003) argued that health‑sector coordination in the field based is nonstandardized because “United Nations, Red Cross, governmental, and nongovernmental agencies have evolved different mechanisms to achieve it.”

Despite many efforts in the humanitarian relief domain, there has been limited success in coordination among NGOs. Numerous studies exist on the challenges faced by NGOs in providing humanitarian services. Still, the coordination among NGOs which is a major challenge for these organizations has received little attention. Many systems have been proposed for resource management during crisis. However, few studies have proposed coordination models for activities in response to natural hazards. This is especially tangible when it comes to NGOs. Lack of communication and coordination among NGOs, insufficient communication without a clear policy, and little knowled

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