面向安全的自动驾驶汽车总体布置设计开题报告

 2020-02-10 10:02
1.目的及意义(含国内外的研究现状分析)

In recent years, the automobileindustry has begun to show a huge wave of innovation, rapidly moving towardselectrification, networking and intelligence. The development of self-drivingcars will have a profound impact on the automotive industry and the transportationindustry. To achieve automatic driving, the environment-aware system is one ofthe key technologies. The self-driving vehicle environment sensing system needsto quickly acquire relevant data information of the driving environment, suchas a target within a certain range of the vehicle, a guide of the lane line,and traffic road information; the self-driving vehicle control system needs tofeed back information according to the environment sensing system. Combinedwith high-precision navigation system, the corresponding path planning anddecision-making are made to achieve safe automatic driving. At present,auto-driving technology is rapidly developing, and the use of environmentalsensing systems is becoming more and more common.

At the same time, the redundantdesign of self-driving cars is also rapidly developing. The redundant design ofthe automatic driving system generally includes power supply, positioning,sensing, controller and actuator. The redundant design is mainly to avoidserious safety accidents caused by the failure of the autopilot system due tothe failure of a certain component to ensure the safety of pedestrians andpassengers.

Of course, communicationbetween components is also important. Due to the high-performance,high-reliability communication mechanism of the CAN bus, it has been widelyused in the field of automotive electronics. The CAN protocol is used forcommunication between various components in automobiles to replace expensiveand bulky distribution harnesses. Therefore, the CAN bus also plays animportant role in the entire autonomous driving system. The signal transmissionof the environment-aware sensor on the self-driving car is also realized byCAN.

As early as the middle of the20th century, many countries with advanced technology began to conduct a seriesof research on driverless cars. A small number of Ramp;D models are near massproduction, and it is becoming common in the United States and Europe to allowautonomous vehicles under development to travel on the road. In 2000, ToyotaMotor Corporation first developed a driverless bus. The automatic drivingsystem of this bus consists of team driving, road grooming, operationmanagement and safety protection. The magnetic sensor at the front of the vehiclechassis is mainly based on the permanent magnet buried in the middle of theroad to guide the direction and speed of the vehicle. In 2007, a refitteddriverless car, Boss, completed the race of a driverless car on the city'scomplex obstacle course in the first place. In recent years, an Audi driverlesscar has completed 3,400 miles on American roads, which proves to us that forspeed limits, computers are much more obedient than human brains. Delphi, adriverless system supplier, installed the radar, camera and laser sensor on theAudi Q5 and smoothly controlled it from San Francisco to New York, althoughmost of the itinerary was on the highway, but 99% of the time. It is driven byitself.

Regarding the development ofdriverless cars, compared with foreign countries, China started late. However,it has been rapidly developed under the impetus of major universities andscientific research institutions. In 1989, the first smart car was born atChina National University of Defense Technology. It includes computer systems,precision positioning systems, path planning systems, motion control systems,and autopilots. In June 2000, the 4th generation of driverless cars developedby the National University of Defense Technology was successfully tested, and itsfastest speed reached 70km/h, which also set a new record. Its intelligentcontrol system is mainly composed of three parts: computer system, positioningsystem and driving control system. In 2003,

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