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毕业论文网 > 外文翻译 > 管理学类 > 公共事业管理 > 正文


 2022-11-10 02:11  



A family farm is a farm owned and operated by a family Like other family businesses and real estate, ownership often passes to the next generation by inheritance. It is the basic unit of the mostly agricultural economy of much of human history and continues to be so in developing nations. Alternatives to family farms include those run by agribusiness, colloquially known as factory farms, or by collective farming.

KEY WORDS Family Farm, Modern Agriculture, Development, Tactics

United States legal definition

As defined by USDA regulations to farm loan programs (e.g. those administered by the Farm Service Agency), a family farm is a farm that:

(1)produces agricultural commodities for sale in such quantities so as to be recognized in the community as a farm and not a rural residence;

(2)produces enough income (including off-farm employment) to pay family and farm operating expenses, pay debts, and maintain the property;

(3)is managed by the operator;

(4)has a substantial amount of labor provided by the operator and the operatorrsquo;s family;

(5)may use seasonal labor during peak periods and a reasonable amount of full-time hired labor.

Perceptions of the family farm

In developed countries the family farm is viewed sentimentally, as a lifestyle to be preserved for traditions sake, or as a birthright. It is in these nations very often a political rallying cry against change in agricultural policy, most commonly in France, Japan, and the United States, where rural lifestyles are often regarded as desirable. In these countries, strange bedfellows can often be found arguing for similar measures despite otherwise vast differences in political ideology. For example, Patrick Buchanan and Ralph Nader, both candidates for the office of President of the United States, held rural rallies together and spoke for measures to preserve the so-called family farm. On other economic matters they were seen as generally opposed, but found common ground on this one.

The social roles of family farms are much changed today. Until recently, staying in line with traditional and conservative sociology, the heads of the household were usually the oldest man followed closely by his oldest sons. The wife generally took care of the housework, child rearing, and financial matters pertaining to the farm. However, agricultural activities have taken on many forms and change over time. Agronomy, horticulture, aquaculture, silviculture, and apiculture, along with traditional plants and animals, all make up aspects of todays family farm. Farm wives often need to find work away from the farm to supplement farm income and children sometimes have no interest in farming as their chosen field of work.

Bolder promoters argue that as agriculture has become more efficient with the application of modern management and new technologies in each generation, the idealized classic family farm is now simply obsolete, or more often, unable to compete without the economies of scale available to larger and more modern farms. Advocates argue that family farms in all nations need to be protected, as the basis of rural society and social stability.

Viability of the family farm

According to the United States Department of Agriculture, ninety-eight percent of all farms in the U.S. are family farms. Two percent of farms are not family farms, and those two percent make up fourteen percent of total agricultural output in the United States, although half of them have total sales of less than $50,000 per year. Overall, ninety-one percent of farms in the United States are considered 'small family farms' (with sales of less than $250,000 per year), and those farms produce twenty-seven percent of U.S. agricultural output.

Depending on the type and size of independently owned operation, some limiting factors are:

(1)Economies of scale: Larger farms are able to bargain more competitively, purchase more competitively, profit from economic highs, and weather lows more readily through monetary inertia than smaller farms.

(2)Cost of inputs: fertilizer and other agrichemicals can fluctuate dramatically from season to season, partially based on oil prices, a range of 25% to 200% is common over a few year period.

(3)oil prices: Directly (for farm machinery) and somewhat less directly (long distance transport; production cost of agrichemicals), the cost of oil significantly impacts the year-to-year viability of all mechanized conventional farms.

(4)commodity futures: the predicted price of commidity crops, hogs, grain, etc., can determine ahead of a season what seems economically viable to grow.

(5)technology user agreements: a less publicly known factor, patented GE seed that is widely used for many crops, like cotton and soy, comes with restrictions on use, which can even include who the crop can be sold to.

(6)wholesale infrastructure: A farmer growing larger quantities of a crop than can be sold directly to consumers has to meet a range of criteria for sale into the wholesale market, which include harvest timing and graded quality, and may also include variety, therefore, the market channel really determines most aspects of the farm decisionmaking.

(7)availability of financing: Larger farms today often rely on lines of credit, typically from banks, to purchase the agrichemicals, and other supplies needed for each growing year. These lines are heavily affected by almost all of the other constraining factors.

(8)government economic intervention: In some countries, notably the US and EU, government subsidies to farmers, intended to mitigate the impact on domestic farmers of economic and political activities in other areas of the economy, can be a significant source of farm income.



Lee, Jennifer Dukes U.S. Dept. of Agriculture, Economic Research Service New York

摘 要


关键词 家庭农场/现代农业/发展/策略








2 家庭农场的看法

在发达国家,家庭农场被视为感情用事,是一种为了传统而保留的生活方式,或者是一种与生俱来的权利。在这些国家,这往往是反对改变农业政策的政治口号,最常见的是在法国、日本和美国,那里的农村生活方式往往被认为是可取的。在这些国家,尽管政治意识形态存在巨大差异,但经常可以发现一些奇怪的同床异枕的人主张采取类似的措施。例如,美国总统候选人帕特里克·布坎南(Patrick Buchanan)和拉尔夫·纳德(Ralph Nader)一起在农村举行集会,呼吁采取措施保护所谓的家庭农场。在其他经济问题上,他们普遍持反对意见,但在这个问题上却找到了共同点。



3 家庭农场的可行性



  1. 规模经济:与规模较小的农场相比,规模较大的农场能够更有竞争力地讨价还价,更有竞争力地购买,更容易从经济高点获利,更容易通过货币惯性从天气低点获利。
  2. 投入成本:化肥和其他农用化学品的投入成本会随着季节的变化而剧烈波动,部分原因是受石油价格的影响,在几年的时间里,化肥和其他农用化学品的投入成本通常在25%到200%之间波动。
  3. 油价:直接(用于农机)和稍低直接(长途运输);(农业生产成本),石油成本显著影响到所有机械化常规农场的年复一年的生存能力。
  4. 商品期货:预测的商品粮、生猪、粮食等价格,可以在一个季节之前决定什么作物在经济上是可行的。








4 二十一世纪的家庭农场






5 当地的食品和有机运动




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