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毕业论文网 > 外文翻译 > 理工学类 > 能源与动力工程 > 正文

在写给Don Lundergan的信中外文翻译资料

 2023-01-19 10:01  

Roy (Red) E. Hollenbach (1950–198292)

Editorsrsquo; comments: Don Lundergan intended to prepare a brief history of shock wave developments at Sandia and asked several people for input. The following response is from Red Hollenbach.

In a Letter to Don Lundergan

Don, you know you are requesting information from the worst memory in town! Trying to remember things that happened over 40 years ago and the specific people associated with those events would be very difficult. Somebody would be over- looked. Maybe your scheme of combining memories will work out best. At any rate, Irsquo;ll just jot down a few ideas and see what you think.

Irsquo;m wondering, Don, if you could write up a sort of “rags to riches” saga about the shock wave work. I think we were both in Don Cotterrsquo;s group when you started push- ing shock waves. I donrsquo;t know how you got saddled with me—I guess I was just plain lucky. It was the start of the bulk of my career at Sandia. We started with nothing—a cast-off shock tube, no instrumentation, two people—and Irsquo;m not sure we were on the project full time. We progressed from firing the gun out across the mesa to a sawdust- filled bunker that challenged us to find the test piece after each shot. Early test results were obtained from postmortem visual (eyeball and microscope) examination of the “target.” Somewhere about this time our group seemed to really grow—more people, better facilities, lots of instrumentation and much more sophisticated techniques (pins, slanted resistor) for obtaining and reducing the data from each shot.

Now here is the “riches” part. A whole department of people, two fully- instrumented test facilities, and a laser velocity interferometer technique that I think far exceeded your “one-shake resolution.” (Someday you can refresh my memory: What is a “shake”? 93)

This same velocity interferometer technique that Sandia decided was not patent- able has provided and is still producing extremely accurate data on the behavior of materials that have been subjected to shock waves. I donrsquo;t know if Sandiarsquo;s history would be interested in our retired entrepreneur friend (Lynn Barker) marketing these devices around the world.

92 Roy (Red) Hollenbach was hired at Sandia in 1950 and retired in 1982. His involvement in shock wave work covered the period from the late 1950s to the late 1970s.

93 Editorsrsquo; note: A shake is 10 ns.

James N. Johnson (1967–197394)

My family and I arrived in Albuquerque in the late summer of 1967. I had just fin- ished a postdoc with George Duvall at Washington State University (WSU). I was hired at Sandia by Don Lundergan of the Deformation of Materials Division. The Mechanical Behavior Department Manager was Walter Herrmann. During the inter- view process, I had also talked to Glenn Seay and Orval Jones of the Applied Physics Research Department, but chose to join Lunderganrsquo;s group, probably because of my familiarity with the Journal of Applied Physics paper by Barker, Lundergan, and Herrmann (1964) on strain rate dependence in shocked aluminum. My PhD research at WSU had been on elastic precursor decay in iron and its rela- tionship to dislocation mechanics (Johnson and Band 1967).

When I arrived, the Mechanical Behavior Department had a very active research thrust in shock compression of porous materials. My first Sandia report (Johnson 1968a) was on steady wave propagation in porous materials, based on Herrmannrsquo;s P-alpha; model. I also became familiar with the experimental work of Lynn Barker on time-resolved measurement of plastic wave profiles in aluminum; the standard alloy of aluminum was 6061-T6 with rolled texture rather than extruded (maybe the other way around). This difference caused some head scratching along the way when an unusual response was measured in a few shots. Lynn was very quick to find the reason for the anomaly. Lynn and I published a paper on steady plastic waves in aluminum (Johnson and Barker 1969).

The partnership of Lynn Barker and Red Hollenbach in the “Serendipity Lab” sets a standard for experimental shock wave research that has never been equaled in my opinion and experience. I have never forgotten the fact that the speed of light is very nearly one foot per nanosecond after Lynn explained to me that cable lengths were important in the new nanosecond regime in which shock wave experiments were being conducted at Sandia.

I would be derelict in my perceived duty to provide a thoughtful and complete recol- lection of important events and personalities involved in shock wave research at Sandia without mentioning Lynn Barkerrsquo;s musical talents. Lynn was raised on an Arizona ranch and learned his cowboy music in the best place possible: the bunkhouse. I was so impressed with these songs in 1967 that I went down to Kamp;B Music on Central Avenue (in Albuquerque) and bought a $35 classical guitar. Lessons on TV from Laura Weber, and with local musician Ed Clarke, did little for me to attain the soul of Lynnrsquo;s playing and singing. I still try to do justice to two songs I learned from Lynn: Lewie Wickhamrsquo;s “A Little Too Late” and Texas Jim Lewisrsquo;s “Seven Beers with the Wrong Woman.”

Sometime in 1968 (my best recollection), Sandia management detected possible duplication of effort or even slight hostility between the Mechanical Behavior and the Applied Physics Research Departments, and as a result they were combined under a single directorate with Al Narath as the referee. Narath decided which

94 Upon leaving Sandia in 1973, Jim Johnson joined Terra Tek in Salt Lake City, UT, for a few years and then joined LANL, continuing research in the shock wave area.

departments were going to have prime responsibilities in specific areas of shock wave research. Personnel were transferred accordingly. As Lee Davison described it, “Jim was dragged, kicking and screaming, into the


Roy(Red) E. Hollenbach


编者注:Don Lundergan intended to prepare a brief历史 of冲击波开发s at 桑迪亚国家实验室和asked several people for input。following响应 is from Red Hollenbach.

编辑们的评论:Don Lundergan打算准备桑迪亚冲击波发展的简要历史,并请几位人士提供意见。 以下回复来自Red Hollenbach。

在写给Don Lundergan的信中


Don,我想知道,如果你能写出一种关于冲击波工作某种从贫穷到富有的传奇故事,当你开始推动冲击波时,我想我们都在Don Cotter的小组中。我不知道你是怎么背负我的,我想我很幸运。这是我在桑迪亚国家实验室度过的大部分职业生涯的开始。我们开始一无所有,只有一些抛弃的激波管,没有仪器,只有两个人,而且我不确定我们是否全职参与该项目。我们从把发射炮到整个台面上,进入了一个充满锯末的沙坑,挑战我们在每次射击后找到测试件。早期测试结果是从目标的死后视觉(眼球和显微镜)检查中获得的。大约在这个时候,我们的团队似乎真正成长,有了更多的人、更好的设施、大量的仪器和更复杂的技术(引脚,倾斜的电阻),以获得和减少每次射击的数据。


已经提供了桑迪亚国家实验室决定的这种同样速度干涉仪技术。其不具有专利性,并且仍然生成关于受到冲击波材料行为的极其准确数据,我知道桑迪亚国家实验室的是否历史会对我们退休的企业家朋友(Lynn Barker)将这些设备营销世界各地感兴趣。

James N. Johnson


我和我的家人于1967年夏末抵达阿尔伯克基,我刚刚在华盛顿州立大学(WSU)在George Duvall教授指导下完成博士后研究工作,我受聘桑迪亚国家实验室Don Lundergan的材料变形部门,机械行为部门负责人是Walter Herrmann。在面试过程中,我还与应用物理研究部门的Glenn Seay和Orval Jones进行了交谈,但选择加入Lundergan的小组,可能是因为我熟悉Barker、Lundergan和Herrmann(1964)的应用 应用物理学杂志论文,其论文是关于冲击铝的应变率依赖性。我在华盛顿大学的博士研究一直是关于铁弹性前体衰变及其与位错力学的关系(Johnson和Band,1967)。

当我到达时,机械行为部门非常积极研究多孔材料的冲击压缩,我的第一份桑迪亚国家实验室报告(Johnson,1968a)是关于基于Herrmann的P-模型多孔材料中的稳定波传播。我也熟悉了Lynn Barker关于铝中塑性波形时间分辨测量的实验工作;铝的标准合金是6061-T6,具有轧制质地而不是挤压(可能相反)。当在几次射击中测量到异常响应时,这种差异同时引起一些令人难解的问题,Lynn很快找到了异常的原因,Lynn和我发表了一篇关于铝中稳定塑性波的论文(Johnson和Barker,1969)。

Lynn Barker和Red Hollenbach在Serendipity实验室的合作为实验冲击波研究设定了一个标准,在我的观点和经验中,这从未与之相提并论。Lynn向我解释说,在桑迪亚国家实验室进行冲击波实验的新纳秒机制中,电缆长度非常重要,我从未忘记光速几乎是每纳秒一英尺的事实。

如果我不提Lynn Barker的音乐天赋,我将不能对在桑迪亚国家实验室冲击波研究过程中所涉及重要事件和人物进行深思熟虑和完整的回忆。Lynn在亚利桑那州的一个牧场长大,并在尽可能最好的地方学习牛仔音乐:简易工棚。1967年我对这些歌曲留下了深刻的印象,我去了中央大街(在阿尔伯克基)的Kamp;B音乐,35美元买了一把古典吉他。Laura Weber和当地音乐家Ed Clarke在电视上的课程对我来说毫无作用,Lynn演奏和演唱能够直抵我的灵魂,我仍然试着证明一下从Lynn那里学到的两首歌:Lewie Wickham的有点太晚了与Texas Jim Lewis的七杯啤酒配错女人。

在1968年的某个时候(我最好的回忆),桑迪亚国家实验室管理层发现机械行为和应用物理研究部门之间可能存在重复工作甚至有轻微的敌意,因此他们在Al Narath作为裁判的单一董事会下合并,Narath决定哪些部门将在冲击波研究的特定领域承担主要责任,相应调动人员。正如Lee Davison所描述的那样,Jim故意拖延进入冲击波物理研究部门,并且申斥、尖声怪气地到处宣讲,如果这是真的,那只是因为我的专业不成熟。机械行为部门倾向于机械工程,冲击波物理研究部门有更多的物理谱系,尽管重叠模糊了这种区别。我的新部门主管是加州理工学院现代理性力学博士Lee Davison,我们的部门负责人Orval Jones是加州理工学院工程力学博士。

在我的新组织中,我与Pete Lysne共用一个办公室,Pete Lysne是一位实验主义人士,他研究冲击条件下的多孔材料和压电效应。物理研究部门的实验主任显然是Bob Graham和Bill Benedick,测量技术使用石英计,使用X切口石英作为动态应力计在该部门有着悠久的历史,正如在这些回忆中其他地方更详细的介绍那样。我想在这里强调的想法是,我在桑迪亚国家实验室的前三年,在许多新的子领域都有速成课程:多孔材料、合理的连续介质力学、固体的压电特性、爆炸物、固-固相变、以及(最重要的)单晶的弹塑性冲击响应。

Orval Jones的政策是将一名材料科学家置于在物理研究部门接受全面的冶金培训的职工之中,我认为第一个这样的科学家是J. R. (Reid) Holland(我不认识他);第二个这样的科学家是Dick Rohde。我能够与Dick一起研究铁的动态变形孪晶[4]。在Rohde过渡到管理层工作之后,Lee Davison聘用了Larry Pope,Larry和我研究单晶铍的动态弹塑性响应,一般来说,在铍工作之前,某个时候开始关注单晶的冲击波响应。

1969年我发表了一篇关于多晶金属的论文(Johnson,1969),文章总结了随机滑移面和滑移方向的统计分布。在我看来,由于数据是在各种单晶上生成的,因此可以通过对面心立方(fcc)、体心立方(bcc)、岩盐和六方密堆积(hcp)单晶中各滑移面和方向的贡献求和,直接使用相同的数学方法。Orval Jones对这种可能性非常热衷,1970年我们和Tom Michaels(WSU博士生)发表了关于位错动力学和单晶本构关系的论文(Johnson,Jones和Michaels,1970),在这项工作中,限制平面冲击波到产生纯纵向运动的特定传播方向上。

在本研究的某个时刻,我们询问了非特异性晶体传播方向会发生什么。幸运的是,正如在大型多学科机构中经常发生的那样,你会四处寻找并很快找到可以告诉你非常有帮助的一个人。就是这种情况,正如我在旧的结构变形部门与Sam Key的谈话中所发现的那样。Sam给了我关于线弹性、各向异性、平面波传播的一些解释,这包括一般传播方向和耦合准纵向和准横向平面波。我将这些想法应用于Y切口石英和离轴hcp晶体,首先是线弹性范围,后来是弹塑性区域。Sam显然已经转移到其他研究领域,因为他自告奋勇说我现在是各向异性波传播的当地专家。

1967年,我不知道理性的连续体力学和“Clifford Truesdell”这样的名字,也就是说,直到我突然遇到一位桑迪亚国家实验室数学家Peter Chen,直到那一刻,我认为我们(物理学家)在构造本构法、热力学、应变测量等方面已经足够严谨。我从未听说过“第二个Piola-Kirchhoff应力张量”或“合适的Cauchy-Green”变形张量。我之前在华盛顿州立大学的教育参与了E. H. Lee(斯坦福大学)关于极化分解定理以及如何将变形梯度分解为弹性和塑性成分:你首先采用弹性部件然后采用塑性部件还是相反的顺序?一个有趣的数学问题,但我不知道动态物质行为的世界取决于这些事情。随着时间的推移,更亲切、更温和的思想教育我这个主题。Walt Herrmann桑迪亚国家实验室关于一维连续介质力学的报告非常有用,Karl Schuler和Lee Davison的均衡方法[5]也是如此。我认为这一段将巩固我作为科学守旧和实利主义人士的声誉。

我能够学习冲击波物理学新方面的另一个领域是相变的主题,与Jim Asay和Dennis Hayes一起研究铋(Johnson,Asay和Hayes,1974),铋具有非常有趣的特性,单冲击压缩不仅可以探测固体I-固体II相变,而且可以探测液相。因此,存在三相点为理论家提出了挑战。Dennis关于如何处理这些问题做了一些非常好的工作(Hayes,1975),我从这种互动中受益匪浅。

最后,我记得在西部举行的美国物理学会(APS)冬季会议上发生了一个重要事件(对我来说),这是两年一度的APS冲击物理学专题会议,之后决定创办两年一次的凝聚态物质冲击压缩APS专题会议。我认为这一年是1968年,场地是加利福尼亚州圣地亚哥,Glenn Seay出席了这次会议,我想时间是他从桑迪亚国家实验室转到通用原子能公司之后,有人就受冲击状态下的释放问题发表演讲,Glen提出了以下问题:为什么压缩弹性前体基本上总是表现出一个尖锐的屈服点,而同一材料中的释放波几乎总是表现出一个非常扩散的反向转变,并随着传播距离继续扩散?发言者没有回答,直到20世纪90年代,当我以为我可能有答案时,这个问题仍然存在,这与位错堆积和固定环的存在有关,这些环在冲击状态释放后会立即提供一些反向塑性流动,基于这些想法我发表了许多论文(Johnson,1993;Winey,Johnson和Gupta,2012)。我把这个纪念作为又一个例子,我在桑迪亚国家实验室任期对我具有持久智力影响,我在2013年写这篇文章时,仍然感激不尽。

Orval E. Jones[6]



通过本书中描述30多年的大部分时间,Orval E. Jones是冲击物理学历史上的重要参与者,他在加州理工学院获得博士学位后,于1961年来到桑迪亚国家实验室。他最初的任务是作为技术工作人员,致力于固体对冲击波的电气和机械响应。他的第一个办公室伙伴是Bob Graham,是我们历史上另一位杰出的人物。三年后他成为动态应力研究小组的主管;4年后,他晋升为物理研究部门的负责人。在他第一次晋升时,他称之为自我探索的旅程,并以一种惶恐的心情做出改变。如果他继续担任研究员的职业道路,他仍然想知道他的生活会是怎样的。



在首次成为主任后不久,Orval必须处理他的一个困难,也就是桑迪亚最大的危机:1973年数裁员百名桑迪亚国家实验室工作人员,正是Orval反复担心,这表明实验室的未来非常有限,我们可能永远不会重新获得与过去相同水平的研究活动。然而,在此之后不久桑迪亚国家实验室主任Morgan Sparks,第一次石油和能源危机中,要求所有所有桑迪亚国家实验室工作人员提出解决这些问题的新想法。由此挑战产生的许多概念引起能源研究和开发的新计划,其中很多项目涉及冲击物理学研究的实际应用,Orval对实验室未来的担忧随之减弱。




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