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毕业论文网 > 外文翻译 > 理工学类 > 轮机工程 > 正文

基于单片机的船舶柴油机信号监测系统设计与实现外文翻译资料

 2022-09-18 05:09  

Part E: Evaluation

Introduction

The effectiveness of any evaluation depends upon the accuracy of the description of what is to be measured.

The learning objectives used in the detailed syllabus will provide a sound base for the construction of suitable tests for evaluating trainee progress.

Method of evaluation

The methods chosen to carry out an evaluation will depend upon what the trainee is expected to achieve in terms of knowing, comprehending and applying the course content.

The methods used can range from a simple question-and-answer discussion with the trainees (either individually or as a group), to prepared tests requiring the selection of correct responses from given alternatives, the correct matching of given items, the supply of short answers or the supply of more extensive written responses to prepared questions.

Where the course content is aimed at the acquisition of practical skills, the test would involve a practical demonstration by the trainee making use of appropriate equipment, tools, etc.

The responses demanded may therefore consist of:

·The recall of facts of information, viva-voce or objective tests

·The practical demonstration of an attained skill

·The oral or written description of procedures or activities

·The identification and use of data from sketches, drawings, maps, charts, etc.

·Carrying out calculations to solve numerical problems

·The writing of an essay or report

Validity

The evaluation must be based on clearly defined objectives, and it must truly represent what is to be measured. There must be a reasonable balance between the subject topics involved and also in the testing of traineesrsquo; KNOWLEDGE, COMPREHENSION and APPLICATION of concepts. The time allocated for the trainee to provide a response is very important. Each question or task must be properly tested and validated before it is used to ensure that the test will provide a fair and valid evaluation.

Reliability

To be reliable, an evaluation procedure should produce reasonably consistent results no matter which set of papers or version of the test involved is used.

Subjective testing

Traditional methods of evaluation require the trainee to demonstrate what has been learned by stating or writing formal answers to questions.

Such evaluation is subjective in that it invariably depends upon the judgment of the evaluator. Different evaluators can produce quite different scores when marking the same paper or evaluating oral answers.

Objective testing

A variety of objective tests have been developed over the years. Their common feature is that the evaluation does not require a judgment by the evaluator. The response is either right or wrong.

One type of objective test involves supplying an answer, generally a single word, to complete the missing portion of a sentence. Another involves supplying a short answer of two or three words to a question. Such tests are known as “completion tests” and “short answer tests”.

Another form of objective testing consists of “selective response tests” in which the correct, or best, response must be selected from given alternatives. Such tests may consist of “matching tests”, in which items contained in two separate lists must be matched or they may be of the true/false type or of the multiple-choice type.

The most flexible form of objective test is the multiple-choice test, which presents the trainee with a problem and a list of alternative solutions, from which he must select the most appropriate.

Distracters

The incorrect alternatives in multiple-choice questions are called “distracters”, because their purpose is to distract the uninformed trainee from the correct response. The distracter must be realistic and should be based on misconceptions commonly held, or on mistakes commonly made.

The options “none of the above” or “all of the above” are used in some tests. These can be helpful, but should be used sparingly.

Distracters should distract the uninformed, but they should not take the form of “trick” questions that could mislead the knowledgeable trainee (for example, do not insert “not” into a correct response to make it a distracter).

Guess factor

The “guess factor” with four alternative responses in a multiple-choice test would be 25%. The pass mark chosen for all selective-response questions should take this into account.

Scoring

In simple scoring of objective tests one mark may be allotted to each correct response and zero for a wrong or nil response.

A more sophisticated scoring technique entails awarding one mark for a correct response, zero for a nil response and minus one for an incorrect response. Where a multiple-choice test involves four alternatives, this means that a totally uninformed guess involves a 25% chance of gaining one mark and a 75 % chance of losing one mark.

Scores can be weighted to reflect the relative importance of questions, or of sections of an evaluation.

Further guidance

Further information is provided in the Guidance on the implementation of model courses.

GUIDANCE ON THE IMPLEMENTATION

OF MODEL COURSES

Contents

Part l Preparation

Part 2 Notes on Teaching Technique

Part 3 Curriculum Development

Annex Al Preparation checklist

Annex A2 Example of a Model Course syllabus in a subject area

Annex A3 Example of a lesson plan for annex A2

Part 1-Preparation

1 Introduction

1.1 The success of any enterprise depends heavily on sound and effective preparations.

1.2 Although the IMO model course “package” has been made as comprehensive as possible, it is nonetheless vital that sufficient time and resources are devoted to preparation. Preparation not only involves matters concerning administration or organization, but also includes the prepar

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Part E: Evaluation

E部分:评估

Introduction

简介

The effectiveness of any evaluation depends upon the accuracy of the description of what is to be measured.

任何评估的有效性取决于对所测量的描述的准确性。

The learning objectives used in the detailed syllabus will provide a sound base for the construction of suitable tests for evaluating trainee progress.

在具体的教学大纲中所使用的学习目标,将为评估学员的测试提供合适的建设的基础。

Method of evaluation

评估方法

The methods chosen to carry out an evaluation will depend upon what the trainee is expected to achieve in terms of knowing, comprehending and applying the course content.

所选择的方法进行评估,将由学员在在认识、理解和运用课程内容方面所期望达到的效果决定。

The methods used can range from a simple question-and-answer discussion with the trainees (either individually or as a group), to prepared tests requiring the selection of correct responses from given alternatives, the correct matching of given items, the supply of short answers or the supply of more extensive written responses to prepared questions.

所使用的方法可以是和学员从一个简单的问题和回答进行讨论(单独或作为一组)到从给定的可选方案中选择出正确的方案来准备测试,正确的匹配所给的项目,提供简短的回答,或者是更为广泛的书面回答以准备问题。

Where the course content is aimed at the acquisition of practical skills, the test would involve a practical demonstration by the trainee making use of appropriate equipment, tools, etc.

课程的内容的目的是获得实际的技能, 该测试将会包含一个通过学员使用适当的设备,工具进行的实际演示。

The responses demanded may therefore consist of:

因此,要求可能包括:

·The recall of facts of information, viva-voce or objective tests

·事实信息的回忆,口头的或客观的试验。

·The practical demonstration of an attained skill

·已获得技能的实践演示。

·The oral or written description of procedures or activities

·程序或活动的口头或书面说明。

·The identification and use of data from sketches, drawings, maps, charts, etc.

·对从示意图、图纸、地图、图表等获得的数据进行识别和应用。

·Carrying out calculations to solve numerical problems

·进行计算解决数值问题。

·The writing of an essay or report

·撰写论文或报告。

Validity

有效性

The evaluation must be based on clearly defined objectives, and it must truly represent what is to be measured. There must be a reasonable balance between the subject topics involved and also in the testing of traineesrsquo; KNOWLEDGE, COMPREHENSION and APPLICATION of concepts. The time allocated for the trainee to provide a response is very important. Each question or task must be properly tested and validated before it is used to ensure that the test will provide a fair and valid evaluation.

评估必须基于清晰明确的目标,它必须真正代表被测量的东西,在所包含的项目主题和学员对知识、理解和应用的概念的测试中必须包含一个合适的平衡点。给学员足够的可支配的时间来为回答问题做准备是非常重要的,每一个问题和任务在它们被用之前都必须经过适当的测试和验证,以确保测试可提供一个公平、有效的评估。

Reliability

可靠性

To be reliable, an evaluation procedure should produce reasonably consistent results no matter which set of papers or version of the test involved is used.

为了可靠性,无论哪一版本的试卷被使用,评估测试程序必须确保合理、一致的结果。

Subjective testing

主观测试

Traditional methods of evaluation require the trainee to demonstrate what has been learned by stating or writing formal answers to questions.

传统的评估方式要求学员通过正式的书写来证明他们的所学。

Such evaluation is subjective in that it invariably depends upon the judgment of the evaluator. Different evaluators can produce quite different scores when marking the same paper or evaluating oral answers.

这样的方式是主观的,很大程度上取决于评估者个人的主观判断。对于同样的试卷或口头回答,不同的评估者可能会给出不同的分数。

Objective testing

客观测试

A variety of objective tests have been developed over the years. Their common feature is that the evaluation does not require a judgment by the evaluator. The response is either right or wrong.

各种客观的测验方式近年来逐渐兴起。它们的共同特征就是不再以评估者的个人判断为标准。学员的答案不是正确就是错误。

One type of objective test involves supplying an answer, generally a single word, to complete the missing portion of a sentence. Another involves supplying a short answer of two or three words to a question. Such tests are known as “completion tests” and “short answer tests”.

所提供的客观测试的一种题型是提供一个答案,通常是一句简短的话,去完成一个句子缺失的部分,另外一种方式是为一个问题提供一两个单词的简单回答,这种测试被称为“完成测试”和“简短回答测试”。

Another form of objective testing consists of “selective response tests” in which the correct, or best, response must be selected from given alternatives. Such tests may consist of “matching tests”, in which items contained in two separate lists must be matched or they may be of the true/false type or of the multiple-choice type.

另外一种测试方法是“选择答案测试”,在这种测试中,正确或最好的答案必须从所给的选项中选出来,这一类的测试可以是由“匹配测试”组成,在这类测试中,位于两个单独列中的选项必须匹配,或它们是对/错判断题,或是多选项类型的题目。

The most flexible form of objective test is the multiple-choice test, which presents the trainee with a problem and a list of alternative solutions, from which he must select the most appropriate.

客观测试中最灵活的形式是多选项选择题,该类型的题目提供给学员一个问题和一系列可以选择的选项,学员必须从其中选择出最正确的一个选项。

Distracters

错误选项

The incorrect alternatives in multiple-choice questions are called “distracters”, because their purpose is to distract the uninformed trainee from the correct response. The distracter must be realistic and should be based on misconceptions commonly held, or on mistakes commonly made.

多选题中给出的错误的选项叫做错误选项。它们的主要作用就是扰乱那些学得不扎实的训练者。这些误选项必须以假乱真,而且针对一些常见的错误来设置。

The options “none of the above” or “all of the above” are used in some tests. These can be helpful, but should be used sparingly.

类似于“以上选项都不对”或“以上选项都对”这样的选型可以在某些测验中被使用,它们可能对于检测训练者水平有帮助,但必须有节制的使用。

Distracters should distract the uninformed, but they should not take the form of “trick” questions that could mislead the knowledgeable trainee (for example, do not insert “not” into a correct response to make it a distracter).

错误选项应该针对那些学得不扎实的训练者,它们不应该以恶作剧的形式出现,否则会误导那些已经掌握知识内容的训练者。(例如,不要故意在正确答案前加上否定词来作为误选项)。Guess factor

猜测因素

The “guess factor” with four alternative responses in a multiple-choice test would be 25%. The pass mark chosen for all selective-response questions should take this into account.

多选题中必须有百分之二十五的题目需要考生稍加猜测。在设定选择题的通过分数时,应该考虑到这一点。

Scor

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